Friday, September 13, 2013

Kaieteur News, Nov. 13-18, 2008

November 13, 2008, Kaieteur News, Jim Jones plotted cyanide deaths years before Jonestown,
November 16, 2008, Kaieteur News, Jim's "uncool" Kool-aid, by Peeping Tom,
November 16, 2008, Kaieteur News, Jim Jones – a leader, spiritualist, faith healer or murderer?, by Gary Eleazar,
November 17, 2008, Kaieteur News, Letters, Erect a shrine/monument in remembrance of Jonestown dead, by T. Pemberton,
November 18, 2008, Kaieteur News, Crime of the century; 913 died in Jonestown cult killing, by Gary Eleazar,
November 18, 2008, Kaieteur News, Letter, Important lessons of the Jonestown Massacre, by Working People Alliance,

November 13, 2008, Kaieteur News, Jim Jones plotted cyanide deaths years before Jonestown,

Just days before the death anniversary of some 900 United States citizens in Guyana, a report aired by Cable News Network (CNN) in the United States of America suggests that Reverend Jim Jones, who is responsible for the Jonestown massacre, may have planned the cyanide deaths years before the fatal November 18, 1978 tragedy.

This year is the 30th anniversary of that debacle.

According to the CNN report, cyanide was being bought and shipped to the Jim Jones's jungle compound for at least two years before the fatal death command.

Sources in Guyana told the media house that the Jonestown camp began obtaining shipments of cyanide — about a quarter to a half-pound of the deadly poison each month — from as early as 1976, well before most of Jones's followers made the move there.

Jones led his followers to their death after his gunmen killed a visiting US congressman, Leo Ryan, and four others, including an NBC News correspondent and his cameraman, on the tragic day.

Jones told the members of his People's Temple church that the Guyanese Army would invade their settlement after the murders.

He demanded that parents kill their children first, then take their own lives, rather than face the authorities because of what Jones had done.

Of the 909 who died, 303 were children — from teens to toddlers.

Most were killed by Jones's loyalists, who used syringes to squirt cyanide down their throats and to inject them. Some of the bodies that were strewn across Jonestown

CNN reported that it was told that Jones obtained a jeweler's license to buy cyanide.

The chemical can be used to clean gold. But there was no jeweler's operation in Jonestown.

Six months before Ryan arrived on a one-man investigative mission, the settlement's doctor wrote in a memo to Jones: "Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting poisons…I would like to give about two grams to a large pig to see how effective our batch is."

Ryan, the only U.S. representative assassinated in office, was shot at a nearby airstrip as he tried to leave with 15 church members who told him Jones was holding people captive in the remote jungle encampment.

Jones was a phony faith healer who moved his Indiana church to northern California in the mid-'60s in search of a safe place to survive the possibility of nuclear warfare.

In the mid-'70s, when a magazine raised questions about church beatings and financial abuses, Jones moved his flock to Guyana, in South America, to the jungle settlement he called his 'beautiful promised land'.

November 16, 2008, Kaieteur News, Jim's "uncool" Kool-aid, by Peeping Tom,

The Parrot was a lil boy when, arguably, Guyana's most infamous incident occurred. I had just entered high school; Form One. The news was slow in breaking but spread like wild fire subsequently. I recall my "daddie" coming home very early the day when the news for public consumption had reached the outskirts of the city. He seemed a bit haggard. I still remember his words; “big murder in Jonestown”. He didn't have much information and we didn't have telephones. None of the neighbours either. For the rest of that day everyone was glued to the radio. Electricity in our area at that time was a dream. Televisions, if we had, would have been useless.

The street corners were filled as the conversations abounded; so too did the soot from the “jug lamps”. As more news came in, we found it, well the adults really, we weren't so engrossed, hard to believe that such a tragedy had occurred just a few miles from where we were living.

Jonestown was small and very popular; losing over nine hundred people was inconceivable. The adults, including my "daddie", were preparing to head to the tragedy-hit area. Just as their mode of transportation, a few horse-drawn carts, were turning the street corner, it was disclosed that the incident didn't happen at the Jonestown they knew, but hundreds of miles away in our dense jungle.

The disappointment of not being able to visit the scene showed on their faces. We, the children that is, were overjoyed; we took advantage of the horse carts and prowled around the village, leaving the adults to wallow. I understood their anguish. They all thought, us children too, that the Jonestown made infamous by the suicide debacle was the village of Agricola which was known by the same name. The disappointment gradually gave way to sighs of relief when it was reported that those who died were Americans and not countrymen and women they would have known. The sighs of relief later gave way to perplexity and curiosity.

Shopkeepers were complaining; complaining about the immediate diminished sale of kool-aid. This lack of sale continued within the coming months and even years. Kool-aid phobia quickly rivalled wildfires in spreading. Noise also spread; noise from the whirring of U.S. helicopters which were seen transporting coffins. We, the children, were excited to see these "birds" with coffins being airlifted to the Timehri airport. Never did we see so many choppers. Thirty years after, the proverb “once a man, twice a child” resonates as U.S. Black Hawks and Chinook choppers from the USS Kearsarge, fly in our airspace for humanitarian reasons. Things have changed since.

What hasn't changed are the same questions asked in 1978; questions that are still pertinent thirty years later. Tuesday, November 18, 2008 marks three decades since. The mystery remains. It is extremely difficult to conceive that people, American adults, would be coerced into a boot camp-like environment under the guise of religion and be subjected to the kind of treatment we later learnt they were forced to endure. The word “brainwash” became popular. At that time all of us, the children that is, hadn't a clue what it meant. I now want to believe that some of the adults didn't too. I remember one of the boys my age asking, how do you wash your brain? I am not surprised that today he is not known for any major academic achievement. No, it’s not who you think.

Having learnt subsequently what "brainwash" meant, thirty years after I am still mystified as to how one becomes a related victim. In the context of Jonestown, didn't the inhabitants see early signs of absolute control? Weren't there any hints even before they moved to Guyana? Talking about moving to Guyana, what was the role of the regime then? What was the agreement made between the Kabaka and Jim? Well, they are now in the great beyond so don't expect any answers unless you are one of those persons who can converse with the dead. What? No, I don't think Uncle Adam can do that. If he could, he wouldn't have any issues about his benefits. Uncle Cheddi gone too. Remember?

Seriously, what’s the genesis of the Jonestown settlement? How did these foreigners get the kind of concession they did? How did they get access to vast areas of land? What did they propose? How did they get the machinery and vehicles into that area? What other assistance did they receive from the then administration? Whilst the Kabaka is gone, Uncle Hammie, now the overripe Mayor, is still around. He was a prominent Minister at that time and has not been hesitant to talk. What he should talk about is the answers to the questions asked herein.

Guyanese need answers. Thirty years is a long time. The age of thirty-five is considered as the end of the scale of youth. It therefore means that all of our young people have no authentic recollection of that horrible incident. Maybe it’s a good thing in one way, but on the other hand, they need to know their history which must be based on facts.

Looking at the CNN 30th anniversary documentary on the incident, it was disclosed that three suitcases of United States currency were recovered by the "authority"; some half a million. Where did it go? That amount is basically equivalent to just over one hundred million now! What? There was gold too? Hmmm.
Jonestown cannot be erased. It’s now a ghost town. Those who are fortunate to have escaped and are talking about it will have physiological scars forever etched in their memory. A few came back to chronicle their experience for the CNN special mentioned earlier. For them, a fairly unknown country at that time can never be forgotten. Guyana and Guyanese have since moved on. The eerie site is deserted. Looking at pictures, it seems as if the souls of those who perished are still lurking. The creepy silence is deafening. It seems as if the screams of the babies and children and adults just before their death can still be heard. Jonestown will remain as another dark veil over the then regime.

In terms of related information, the internet seems the providing medium. The images of some nine hundred adults and children lying dead haunt every time they are viewed. What you said Uncle Adam? Kool-aid? Oh sorry. What? Put Hammie on the net? Squawk! Squawk!

November 16, 2008, Kaieteur News, Jim Jones – a leader, spiritualist, faith healer or murderer?, by Gary Eleazar,

…"Die with some degree of dignity," he told his followers

Caption: Jim Jones, the drug-addicted phony preacher who ordered the deaths of more than 900 people in Guyana 30 years ago.

November 18, 1978 will always be embedded in the hearts and minds of Americans, Guyanese and possibly others the world over.

It was the day that some 909 people, including more than 300 children, committed suicide or were murdered in the dense jungle of Guyana, a country with which the world was not too familiar prior to what will always be remembered as the Jonestown Massacre.

Jim Jones, a self-professed faith healer and reverend, led the People’s Temple to Guyana to isolate itself from the world under the guise of a 'world under threat of nuclear war and overwhelming evil that threatened the sanctity of the People's Temple.'

He was born James Warren Jim Jones on May 13, 1931, in Indiana, a rural community near the Ohio border, to James Thurman Jones, a World War One veteran, and Lynetta Putnam.

In 2007 interviews with PBS, childhood acquaintances recalled Jones as a "really weird kid" who was "obsessed with religion … obsessed with death," and once claimed that he frequently held funerals for small animals and had purportedly fatally stabbed a cat.

Jones is said to have been a voracious reader as a child, studying Joseph Stalin, Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler.

After Jones's parents separated, he moved with his mother to Richmond, Indiana, where he graduated from Richmond High School early and with honours in the winter of 1948.

He married Marceline Baldwin, a nurse, in 1949, and moved to Bloomington, Indiana, where he attended the Indiana University.

The following year, after graduating from a pastoral correspondence course, he started preaching and eventually started up a religious organisation that embraced all ethnic groups. Thus the People’s Temple was born in 1955.

The People's Temple appealed primarily to African-Americans, who were at that time still a very marginalized group in America.

After moving its headquarters around the US a couple of times because of criticism from some circles with regard to his radical approach, Jones came to Guyana in 1974 for a plot of land where he said he wanted to set up an agricultural project. In 1974, the People's Temple signed an agreement to lease land in Guyana.

The community created on this property was called the People's Temple Agricultural Project, or informally, "Jonestown." It had as few as 50 residents in early 1977.

Jones first started building Jonestown as a means to create both a 'socialist paradise' and a 'sanctuary' from the media scrutiny which had started in 1972.

Former Temple member Tim Carter, one of three persons who were allowed to walk freely out of Jonestown following the massacre, in describing the reason for the move to Jonestown, said: "What we saw in the United States was creeping fascism.…It was apparent that corporations, or the multinationals, were getting much larger, their influence was growing within the government, and the United States is a racist place."

He told American media operatives that the 'Temple,' which was dictated over by Jones, concluded that Guyana was"a place in a black country where our black members could live in peace…It was a socialist government and it was the only English speaking country in South America."

After Jones left the US for Guyana, he encouraged Temple members to follow him there; and by 1978, the population grew to over 900.

Those who moved there were promised a tropical paradise free from the supposed wickedness of the outside world, and were lured with images of a tranquil, self-sufficient farming community, which was attractive in light of the threat of nuclear war at the time, with the US as a prime target.

But all was not well in the perceived 'bed of roses,' as survivors recall some of the horrors of the community, with public beatings for questioning Jones, hard work details, and rationing of food, among others.

On November 17, 1978, Leo Ryan, a Congressman from the San Francisco area, investigating claims of abuse within the People’s Temple, visited Jonestown.

The beginning of the end

This visit proved to be the beginning of the end of Jonestown. On the evening of that first day, the Congressman and his delegation were treated to a cultural presentation that involved singing and dancing, skits and dramatic presentations, and the settlement was portrayed as a tropical paradise.

But some of the settlers managed to pass notes to members of the visiting delegation, pointing out the cruelties meted out to them whilst there and expressing a need to go back home, given that Jones had seized all of their passports and told them if they wanted to leave they would have to trek through the jungles and come face to face with unthinkable dangers.

The crew delegation was forced to sleep at Port Kaituma, an Amerindian settlement some six miles away from the now infamous Jonestown.

The next day, during an interview with an NBC news journalist, Jones refuted the claims of the persons, calling them liars and pointing out that he had no control over a person’s lips, and could not stop them from lying.

In response to the delegation’s request to carry with them whoever wished to leave, Jones said that they were free to do so.

Some took up the offer, whilst others, out of fear of Jones, stayed. Jones was a drug addict who had a large, well armed security contingent that was loyal to him, and which he used to instill fear in the followers.

During the day of November 18, 1978, there was a lot of emotional outbursts, clamouring and hesitancy, but in the end a number of persons opted to leave the dreaded place. One person was, however, instructed to kill the occupants of whichever aircraft he was placed on.

While at the Port Kaituma airport, persons were recorded as happy to leave, but there were still those who were loyal to Jones in the vicinity, with one man attempting to slit Congressman Ryan's throat even before they boarded the airplane.

He was subdued, but this did not prevent the Congressman from eventually dying a horrific death. As the passengers started to board the airplane, a tractor with a tray attached to it pulled on to the airport, forcing one of the planes that were already taxiing on the runway to abort flight.

It was at this time that the Jim Jones loyalists emerged from the tray with weapons drawn, and their motives were quickly realized when they opened fire on the crowd.

Some managed to make it to the jungle and escape, but for the US Congressman and the news crew, luck was not on their side, as they were brutally murdered by Jones's 'hitmen.' Ryan, to date, is the only U.S. representative to have been assassinated while in office.

Meanwhile, the mole in the crew had also opened fire on the passengers who were in the plane that almost managed to take off.

Back at Jonestown, there was an eerie quiet after the Congressman and his would-be crew left, but this was broken by a call to order, as Jones summoned a meeting with those who remained.

During this meeting, the horrendous command was delivered. Jones told the gathering that he had ordered the death of the Congressman and, as such, the military force would come in and kill and torture them.

He said that there would be paratroopers who would rain bullets on them, and as such there should be a revolutionary suicide protesting the inhumanities of the world. He ordered a batch of cyanide to be mixed into a deadly potion.

It would be placed into a vat of Kool Aid drink and be sweetened to quell the bitter taste of the deadly cyanide.

He then ordered the parents to serve their children with the deadly potions, and sought to calm their fears when the children started to cry, saying that it was a painless death and their cries were just a reaction to the bitter taste. He also urged them to “die with some amount of dignity.” Some 300-plus children were murdered that day.

Many of the parents voluntarily drank the deadly substance, while those who refused were murdered by Jim Jones loyalists.

A few managed to escape. Some trekked through the jungle, and a few were overlooked, given that they were in the compound’s infirmary nursing various ailments. Jones himself died that day, presumably by a loyalist, given that he was found dead with a gunshot to the back of his head.

Recently, it was uncovered that Jones may have plotted the mass suicide long before the day of the actual suicide.

According to a CNN report, cyanide was being bought and shipped to the Jim Jones jungle compound for at least two years before the fatal death command.

Sources in Guyana said that the Jonestown camp began obtaining shipments of cyanide — about a quarter to a half-pound of the deadly poison each month — from as early as 1976, well before most of Jones's followers made the move there.

CNN reported that it was told that Jones had obtained a jeweller's license to buy cyanide. The chemical can be used to clean gold. But there was no jeweller's operation in Jonestown.

Six months before Ryan arrived on the investigative mission, the settlement's doctor wrote in a memo to Jones: "Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting poisons…I would like to give about two grams to a large pig to see how effective our batch is."

November 17, 2008, Kaieteur News, Letters, Erect a shrine/monument in remembrance of Jonestown dead, by T. Pemberton,

Dear Editor,

The CNN broadcast, via local channels over the past few days, about the tragedy at Jonestown was refreshing in the sense that it was actually the first time I paid much attention and have a wider understanding of the issue.

As much as I would have loved to learn more from high ranking officials who might still be around, it is my gut belief that a lot more was never made public, and I believe that that will never become available.

I will settle for what is available, and try to keep a brighter side, for I wouldn't like to become public enemy number one and one who seems to be digging up old graves. My proposal to the authorities in collaboration with the opposition is to erect a shrine or monument in commemoration of the innocent that lost their lives; and an ideal venue will be the Botanical Gardens.

In honouring those lives, especially those of the 303 children, it would be such a colourful remembrance and joy to have 303 children selected randomly (local and foreign based) during the ceremony and having 303 balloons released for those in remembrance.

Partial concept of mine for the nameless children would be to have a teddy bear imbedded on the shrine or monument as representation, and a special song written and sung during every remembrance day.

T. Pemberton

November 18, 2008, Kaieteur News, Crime of the century; 913 died in Jonestown cult killing, by Gary Eleazar,

30 years later, through the eyes of a Guyanese
"Guyana is not to be blamed for this. We have nothing to be ashamed of. We have no reason to want to hide Jonestown. It happened."
Guyana has the responsibility to mankind to ensure that the memory and lessons learnt from what is now the crime of the century are forever preserved so as to prevent them from ever happening again.

The first people to witness the start of the horror

This is according to Captain Gerry Gouveia, who was among the first to witness the carnage that is now remembered simply as the Jonestown Massacre.

During a recent interview with Kaieteur News, he said that it is incumbent on Guyana to establish a memorial were people could go and pay their respects to those that perished on that fateful day—November 18, 1978.

Gouveia noted that the location could also be used as a reference point for historians, students, "or people who just want to see what happens when an ultimate leader is allowed to foster and fester."

He noted that Jonestown represents the greatest self-inflicted tragedy. "And I don't believe that we could allow it to disappear."

Gouveia also noted that the memory of Jonestown must live, because it was a demonstration of the disease that is human. "It represents the effects of the disease of ultimate power by any one man."

He pointed to a sign that was hung above the dead body of Jim Jones which read, "Lest we forget the past we are condemned to repeat it."

"We must always be on our guard against ultimate leaders…leaders who come as prophets…leaders who come as all-wise and glorifying themselves."

He posited that all the blame for the Jonestown Massacre cannot be laid squarely at the feet of Jim Jones. Members of the People's Temple, the cult/organisation that Jones created, are partially to blame, in that they gave Jones the authority over them and worshipped him; glorified enough to give him the disease of power that corrupted him.


According to Gouveia, there was an impression among some that there was some corrupt motive that allowed Jones to set up his organisation in the dense jungle in Guyana, but he said this is far from the truth.

Gouveia described the situation as a win-win situation, in that what Jones proposed was in sync with the national strategy at the time. The development of interior areas was the responsibility of the Guyana National Service.

What made the settlement even more enticing to Guyana was to have Americans settling in what was a highly disputed area, namely Essequibo.

There was also the fact that economic hard times had set in on the community of Port Kaituma, given that the nearby manganese mine which was at Mathews Ridge had closed down. "So when Jonestown came, it breathed new life into Port Kaituma."

Gouveia recalled his first encounter with members of the People's Temple during a trip to Matthews Ridge.

He said that it was during his stint in the National Service. He was waiting for a boat to transport him from Mabaruma to Port Kaituma, and he observed several persons in a trawler-like boat heading in and he asked to hitch a ride with them.

He added that on the boat there was a young man who was speaking excessively about Jonestown. "What they were doing in Guyana…about Father Jones…he was deliriously happy and excited about the things they were doing at Jonestown."

When asked if, on looking back to what transpired in 1978, it might have been a fa├žade, Gouveia said that he truly believed that in the beginning life was wonderful at Jonestown.

He noted that when he did visit that settlement some time later, it was an impressive site; people seemed genuinely happy with life at Jonestown. "I found the place to be fascinating…I thought to myself, this is utopia…the place was clean."

Gouveia recalled that after he acquired his pilot's license, he would fly several persons into Port Kaituma who were destined for Jonestown. "I even flew in Jim Jones a few times."

"Remember this one time this guy came up and he had on a dark shades, but he was very, very dignified, very quiet; was not arrogant or aggressive in any way…He was very humble…His people around him treated him like royalty."

Gouveia recalled that some three months prior to November 18, 1978, he received a call at about midnight to fly an emergency flight out from Port Kaituma.

He noted that when he arrived at the small airstrip, there were two bodies on the runway all bloodied and bruised. He was informed that the two were filling a tire with air when it exploded.

According to Gouveia, he later learnt that the two men were trying to escape from Jonestown, but were caught and beaten excessively, to the point that they had to be airlifted to Georgetown for medical treatment.

This, Gouveia recalled, might have been a sign of the beginning of the end.

He noted that, some time before the fateful day, a Guyana Defence Force aircraft was damaged on the runway; so at the time of the shooting on the airfield, there were ranks on the airstrip repairing the aircraft who were armed.

According to Gouveia there was word that US Congressman Leo Ryan was coming in, and there were some rumours that all may not have been well at Jonestown.

When the shooting happened, there were the ranks on the airstrip a short distance away. Most of them immediately reached for their weapons, but the commanding officer restrained them.

After the multiple killings and suicides, troops were flown in the very night to Matthews Ridge, and they trekked to Port Kaituma to secure the runway.

He noted that at some time around 4:00am on Sunday 19, 1978, he received a call to fly into Port Kaituma.

According to Gouveia, apart from the ranks who were already flown in, they were the first on the scene "When we landed all the bodies were still there on the ground."

He noted that at that time they did not know the magnitude of the killings, and as such they did not fly over Jonestown. They were aware that the men in Jonestown were armed and may have shot at the aircraft.

According to Gouveia, the army ranks had also secured the airstrip because they were of the opinion that the gunmen would have returned to finish the job.

"What we did was to first fly out the wounded people – among them Jackie Speirs who is now a US Congresswoman."

Gouveia added that it was amazing that by the time they returned to Timehri it was already transformed into a US military base. "They had already flown in huge aircraft."

It was a US Congressman who had been shot. Ryan became the first, and to date only, US Congressman to be killed on foreign soil.

He noted that when he flew back into Port Kaituma to recover the body, persons were hesitant to pick up the body. "I picked up the body and helped to place him into a body bag….we were all numb…it was surreal…what was disappointing was the fact that our soldiers did not intervene."

The next day, according to Gouveia, troops were sent in to Jonestown, which was some six miles away, on a reconnaissance mission, pointing out that there were rumours that something was amiss about life in Jonestown.

"I remember standing on the runway and hearing the Colonel briefing the troops to be very careful, given that they would not know who was friend or foe…It was very late that evening when the word came in of what they found."

He added that the following day a helicopter was flown in. "And then I saw the horror."

He described the scene as surreal, more so given that he had known a lot of the persons.

"It was very sad…It was as if it was not real…It was like walking in the middle of a movie."

Captain Gouveia noted, that at the time, the historical significance of what had transpired did not sink in. "We knew it was terrible."

It was not until the international media flooded Guyana to cover the horrific incident that it began to sink in, according to Gouveia.

"There was the smell of death…there was a pungent smell in the air…the children, it was the children that was most moving to see; that was rough,"said Gouveia in a ruefully reflective tone.

"Guyana is not to be blamed for this. We have nothing to be ashamed of about Jonestown; we have no reason to want to hide Jonestown. It happened. It was not our soldiers that murdered those people. Guyana stretched out a helping hand to a people that were looking for a new kind of life, a new utopia…we must not be ashamed about it."

November 18, 2008, Kaieteur News, Letter, Important lessons of the Jonestown Massacre, by Working People Alliance,

Dear Editor,

Thirty years after that devastating incident at Jonestown, which left 909 persons, including 303 children and US Congressman Leo Ryan dead, people from around the world, including the survivors and the relatives of those who died, continue to be baffled by the chain of events that led to that monumental disaster.

Guyanese who are old enough will recall that, in the early hours of November 18, 1978, we were bombarded by frantic calls from relatives overseas to verify reports which were first heard in the USA, that spoke to the horrors of a tragedy of immense proportions which had taken place at Jonestown.

That tragedy shook the world. It was subsequently learnt that The People's Temple, which was led by the notorious iron-fisted Jim Jones and which had its genesis in the USA and counted mainly American citizens in its membership, had self-destructed as a result of acts of murder and suicide orchestrated by Jim Jones. Guyanese were as traumatized as the survivors and relatives of the deceased.

While questions continue to be raised as to the real purpose of The People's Temple – one theory being that it was in fact one in a series of CIA mind-control centres — what is clear is that Jim Jones and his group were allowed to establish a settlement by the PNC Government in Guyana's interior and that there was very little governmental oversight of the operations of that organisation.

It is also clear that, somewhere along the way, The People's Temple had acquired considerable influence among certain political officials in the then Government who, among other things, attempted to influence the course of justice in the courts.

The action by the then Minister of Home Affairs, Vibert Mingo, to get Justice Aubrey Bishop to reverse his decision that Jim Jones "must appear and give evidence in the Baby Stoen case," in the matter of a custody dispute that was engaging the judge's attention, is a case in point. Jim Jones ignored the judge's order.

If Justice Bishop's ruling was heeded on that occasion, maybe, just maybe, the outcome at Jonestown would have been different.

There are several lessons for Guyanese in The People's Temple fiasco. The most important are: one, that interference by political tin gods, big or small, in the judicial process has far-reaching negative effects on a country and its citizens; and two, that under no circumstance should Guyana's soil and sovereignty be compromised for any purpose whatsoever.

Working People Alliance

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