Friday, February 17, 2017

DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP (Report on a two-day visit, 1-2 May)





  • Page 1
    Mr Crossman 
  • SUPREME HEADQUARTERS ALLIED EXPEDITIONARY FORCE Psychological Warfare Division 

  • CONFIDENTIAL 
  • 12 May 1945. 
  • Personal File 
  • DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP (Report on a two-day visit, 1-2 May) 

  • 1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of the visit to Dachau was to obtain documentary and photographic material directly after liberation for a motion picture on German atrocities to be shown in Germany. The material presented here, gathered in the disordered conditions of the second and third days of liberation, should therefore be read only as a preliminary report. 2. DACHAU'S SIZE AND PLANT The Dachau penal and correctional institution consists of a main camp (STAMMLAGER) surrounded by several subsidiary or work camps (UNTERLAGER), all situated on land owned or leased by the SS. The central Dachau compound, about ten acres in size, encloses some twenty-five semi-permanent prisoner barracks buildings, a permanent block of prison cells, an isolated barracks (known as the EHRENBUNKER) for special political prisoners receiving preferential treatment, kitchens, warehouses, guard rooms, special rooms used for corporal punishments, tortures, and medical experiments on prisoners, and a three-acre yard. In a special stockade outside the compound proper are the crematory, gas chamber, and war-dog kennels. A complex of SS and Waffen-SS administration buildings and warehouses abutts on the camp. 3. NUMBER AND TYPES OF INMATES At the time of liberation, about 65,000 prisoners were being carried on the Dachau roll, of whom 32,000 were housed in the main compound. Although the largest single national representation was Polish, men from every European state were present, including 5,660 Germans. Highly conflicting statements on the ratio of criminal to political prisoners were obtained; a United States officer assigned to the Camp Review Board explained that numerous non-German convicted criminals, on having refused the invitation to join the Wehrmacht had been transferred to the status of political prisoners. At the other end of the scale, among the inmates interviewed on 1 and 2 May were several Canadian paratroop officers, a Czech newspaper and motion-picture editor (Paul HUSAREK), the former Berlin correspondent of the Havas Agency (M. RAVOUX), a German Communist organizer who had spent twelve years at Dachau (George BIEBER), an Austrian aristocrat (Count LODRON), an Albanian Cabinet member (Ali KUCI), the former Polish Consul General in Munich (GRABINSKY) and a British Naval Officer (Lieut. Comdr. Patrick OREARY). The French General DELESTRAINT, also an inmate, had reportedly been executed two days before Dachau's liberation. A group of especially well-known prisoners, including Martin NIEMOELLER, formerly quartered in a special barracks, had been removed late in April to the camp at Innsbruck. About 450 women were at Dachau, also quartered apart. Among these was stated to be the widow of Field Marshal von WITZLEBEN. 4. LIVING CONDITIONS It was stated that the Dachau main compound, now holding 32,000 prisoners, had been designed to house a maximum of 10,000. Overcrowding had been aggravated during April by the arrival of some 15,000 evacuees from the Buchenwald, Auschwitz, and Kaufering camps. The bread ration CONFIDENTIAL

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    2. CONFIDENTIAL formerly consisting of 1/4th and later of 1/5th of a loaf of black bread per man per day, had been reduced during this period to 1/8th of a loaf. Housing facilities at Dachau are as follows : each barracks building is subdivided into four units, each of which consists of a bunk hall about 50 feet square, a mess hall about half as large, a washroom, and a latrine. In Dachau's early period, it is stated, these units accommodated about 100 men each. As observed on 1 May, however, the units were housing 300 to 400 men each. Sleeping accomodation was provided in three-tiered bunks about six feet wide, each sleeping from three to five and six men to a tier, and with less than two feet of head room above the top tier. The variations in density of population reflected a distinction between the "upper-class barracks" (NOBLEN BARRACKEN) which housed somewhat more favored prisoners, and the run of common barracks for the mass. Even in the NOBLEN BARRACKEN, however, sanitary facilities appeared to be hopelessly overtaxed. In the louse-infested poorer barracks, prisoners were observed eating their meal in the stench of latrines. In one of these units alone, more than a hundred bed-ridden cases were observed, the chief sicknesses being spotted typhus, dysentery, and diarrhoea (the latter being classed by the inmates as a fatal disease, in view of the impossibility of obtaining diet changes). Corpses were found in the bunks, and before the barracks door. 5. MEDICAL CARE A special barracks - not, however, isolated from the others - had been reserved as an infirmary (KRANKENREVIER). Several prisoners stated that for long periods the infirmary had been without the services of a doctor, and had relied on medical orderlies alone. This circumstance, to which was added the fear of being turned over by the orderlies to the medical experimental station for guinea-pig purposes, appears to have dissuaded many prisoners from answering sick-call. A prisoner in charge of the Dachau muster role reported that on 1 May, 3,900 prisoners were being carried on the infirmary list. According to estimates made by American medical officers on the same date, however, a total of 8,500 Dachau inmates were bed-ridden. Although the German authorities had made an attempt to isolate several of the regular barracks for typhus cases, typhus was by no means restricted to these. As an exception to the general medical picture, prisoners admitted that the German authorities had carried on an effective de-lousing campaign during the last months by means of a newly invented ultra-shortwave process. 6. DEATH RATE AND DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD The following figures on deaths during recent months were obtained from prison records : January 1945 2,888 February 1945 3,977 March 1945 3,750 Prisoners stated that these figures did not include certain executions and "disappearances". The prevalent method of disposal was to remove all clothes from the body and, after attaching an identification tag to its foot, to cart it to the crematory. At times when the four furnaces of the crematory were overtaxed, or when coal was short, bodies were dumped in a pit in the back of the camp. The clothes were turned over to the local agency of the DEUTSCHE TEXTIL- UND BEKLEIDUNGSWERKE, G.m.b.H., a private corporation whose stockholders were SS officials, which reclaimed and repaired the garments (with the use of unpaid prison labor), and then re-sold them to the camp clothing depot for the use of other prisoners. CONFIDENTIAL

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    CONFIDENTIAL 3. 7. PUNISHMENTS AND EXECUTIONS Routine punishments, as reported by prisoners who had undergone them, were : for having leaned on one's shovel while at work in the quarry, one hour's suspension by the hands from a ring attached to the wall; for having smoked a cigarette during work hours, twenty-five lashes at the whipping post. A special punishment, reported by several witnesses, was that of making the entire camp population stand at attention in the yard all night long, in expiation for the escape of a prisoner. The first of these NACHTSTEHEN, during which prisoners were forbidden to wear caps, coats, or gloves, took place during the cold and rainy night of 23 January 1939, on the order of the Schutzhaftlager-fuehrer, SS Obersturmfuehrer HOFFMAN. An unusual form of torture was that of ordering a prisoner to climb to the top of a tree, and then ordering a second prisoner to chop the tree down. The use of dogs to attack naked men who had been trussed up in the crematory yard appears to have been frequent. A gas chamber with sixteen nozzles served for executions. Prisoners reported (without giving details) that in the period from early 1942 to early 1943, anywhere from 200 to 300 Russian military and political prisoners had been shot each day, and that their bones had been used to pave streets. They also reported that during the week before the arrival of American troops, executions by shooting numbered about 30 per day. 8. DACHAU AS A PROFIT-MAKING INSTITUTION The cost to the SS of maintaining a prisoner at Dachau (including food, clothing, and amortization) was stated to be RM 1.70 per day. All prisoners other than the bed-ridden and those needed for essential camp services were put to work on projects that brought in to the camp administration an income well in excess of its outlay. Receipts for the labor of convict engineers, carpenters, clerical workers, etc., who had been farmed out under guard to manufacturers in Munich and Dachau ranged from RM 4 to 6 per man per day. Other prisoners were put to work in the SS-owned quarry at Ueberlingen. About 1400 prisoners were kept working at DIE PLANTAGE, a large farm near Dachau specializing in medicinal herbs. Ownership of the farm was vested by the SS in a private corporation among whose chief stockholders reportedly were General der Waffen-SS POUL and Hauptsturmfuehrer VOIGT. The work of reclaiming the clothes of dead prisoners for the account of the DEUTSCHE TEXTIL- UND BEKLEIDUNGSWERKE was shared by Dachau prisoners with those at Oranienburg and the women's camp at Ravensbrueck. Between sixteen and twenty Dachau women prisoners were employed as prostitutes inside the camp (their establishment being visited only, prisoners stated, by criminal and "asocial" elements); and it is believed that the SS deducted a share of their earnings. 9. MANAGEMENT Administration of Dachau and its subsidiary camps fell under the authority of the Inspector of Death's Head Units of the SS. Management was vested in a Camp Commandant aided by an immediate staff of 32, a subordinate staff of 212, and about 3,300 guards, matrons, trusties, etc. The last Camp Commandant was SS Sturmbannfuehrer WEITER (who was captured by troops of the American 45th Division). His executive officer inside the stockade was the Camp Leader, RUPPERT. Other officials named by prisoners were SS Oberscharfuehrer BONGARTZ, head of the crematory and chief executioner; SS Oberscharfuehrer EICHBERGER, an administration officer who was present at executions; and SS Oberscharfuehrer BACH, who in spite of his low rank was the camp's Chief Investigator (VERNEHMUNGS-FUEHRER), and as such was reported to be responsible only to the SS Central Office. Internal supervision of camp discipline and labor was placed in the hands of trusties (KAPOS) selected by the SS officials from among the prisoners. The men chosen were generally criminals or CONFIDENTIAL

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    4. CONFIDENTIAL 
  • such political prisoners as could be lured by the prospects of favored treatment or power into turning against their fellows. No evidence obtained at Dachau suggested that members of any particular political group or party were predominant in KAPO ranks. The most powerful and hated trusties during the final period of the camp were WERNICKE, a veteran SA man (believed to hold Party badge # 202) who had been convicted of profiteering and whose post was that of LAGERPOLIZEI-KAPO, and the Senior Prisoner (LAGERAELTESTE), an Armenian named MENSARIAN. 10. THE FINAL WEEKS AT DACHAU Prisoners state that in mid-April the SS Central Office decided that the Camp Commandant, WEITER, had "gone too far" in his methods, and ordered a reorganization. The SS High Court (OBERSTGERICHT) came to Dachau to investigate and at the same time to seek to exonerate the Central Office from what had happened there. Its decision was to remove the camp leader, RUPPERT, and to arrest the trio of BACH, WERNICKE, and MENSARIAN, who had bossed and terrorized the compound. The Inspector-General of all concentration camps, WEISS (himself a former commandant of Dachau) was sent down to oversee WEITER. WEISS had barely started on this work, however, when on 24 April he was ordered to evacuate all concentration camps and, it is stated, "to see to it that none of the prisoners arrived at their destination". Preparations for the evacuation of Dachau began that same night. Twenty-one hundred Jewish prisoners were given a quarter of a loaf of bread apiece and placed in railroad cars for shipment southward. For three days the train waited in the yard for a locomotive. During that period, prisoners state, 300 of the evacuees died. On the evening of the 26th, about 5,000 more prisoners were evacuated from Dachau, carrying four days' bread rations and some cheese. Meanwhile, Dachau was itself the scene of an influx of prisoners from camps to the north. Of a column 480 strong which had left Auschwitz on 24 April, on foot and wearing thin clothing, 120 survivors arrived. On 25 April, 1,600 survivors of a convoy of 2,400 prisoners from Buchenwald reached camp; more than 100 of these died within the next twenty-four hours. On 28 April a mixed train of passenger and freight cars arrived after a slow trip from the camp at Kaufering, and hundreds of bodies were found among the living. (This is the famous "death train" which was found standing on a siding beside a public thoroughfare in Dachau, still littered with corpses, when American troops arrived). On 27 April, rumors spread through the camp that other prisoner convoy which had started out from Buchenwald had been exterminated entirely en route. When General Assembly was sounded on that day, therefore, many prisoners went into hiding or played sick. A round-up of the camp was ordered, but the SS guards needed for the carrying out of this order were just then absent from the camp, standing by to meet a possible American paratroop attack for which they had been alerted. Prisoners state that this paratroop alarm had been spread by their own underground confederates operating in the countryside around the camp, in order to distract and confuse the guards. It is also stated that a band of prisoners - most of them veterans of the Spanish International Brigade - broke out of the compound and exchanged fire with the SS guards, as a result of which three of their own number were killed. Since the guards and panicky trusties were unequal to the situation inside the camp, evacuation was put off another day. Next morning, WEISS disappeared. RUPPERT and BACH, now out of arrest took over control of the compound, and prisoners feared that they might order a general massacre. That afternoon, however, RUPPERT and BACH fled, along with the administrative and commissary officials, leaving behind only an outside guard of 200 SS men. This guard did not venture into the compound, and organized prison life at Dachau thus came to an end. CONFIDENTIAL

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    5. CONFIDENTIAL Early on 28 April each national group of prisoners had met to elect representatives. Toward evening these men, organized as the International Committee, took over the internal management of the camp. The chief trusties, WERNICKE and MENSARIAN, were placed under guard. Since the camp food stocks had come to an end, all available Red Cross food parcels were opened and their contents divided throughout the camp. During 29 April the prisoners were left quite to themselves, save for one attempt by several hysterically shouting SS men on motorcycles to stampede them into the electrically-charged stockade wires. At 1730 hours, American troops reached the camp gates, and the SS guards surrendered without a fight. About forty of them were shot out of hand or killed by the prisoners, and with them were WERNICKE and MESARIAN. 11. DACHAU'S PLACE AMONG CONCENTRATION CAMPS Prisoners who had had experience of other camps in Germany were unanimous in stating that conditions at Dachau were generally superior. Several divided Germany's camps into three classes : first and best, camps like Dachau; second, "hard-labor" camps like Ohrdruf and Ueberlingen; third and last, "death camps" (VERNICHTUNGSLAGER) like Mauthausen. The greatest fear of many prisoners was that they might be transferred to Mauthausen; of 1,600 Dachau inmates who had been thus transferred in the fall of 1939, it was stated that 900 died before the following spring. WILLIAM HARLAN HALE, Deputy to Assistant Chief of Division for Directives & Current Propaganda
References,

  1. Jump up^ Przyrembel, A. (October 2001). "Transfixed by an Image: Ilse Koch, the 'Kommandeuse of Buchenwald'". German History. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 19(3): 369–99. doi:10.1191/026635501680193915ISSN 1477-089X.(subscription required)
  2. Jump up^ Alban, Dan (10 November 2005). "Books Bound in Human Skin; Lampshade Myth?"Harvard Law Record. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
  3. Jump up^ Boyle, Hal (14 August 1947). "Cruel 'Queen of Buchenwald' given a permanent address"The Milwaukee Journal. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  4. Jump up^ "Buchenwald Queen must face German court on release"The Evening Independent. 4 July 1949. p. 15. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  5. Jump up^ "Ilse Koch, Red Witch of Buchenwald, on Trial"Los Angeles Times. 28 November 1950. p. 5. Retrieved 16 December 2012. (subscription required)
  6. Jump up^ "Life sentence for 'Red Witch' of Buchenwald"Lewiston Evening Journal. 15 January 1951. p. 6. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  7. Jump up^ "Army seeks new charges against butcher widow"The Evening Independent. 29 September 1948. p. 3. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  8. Jump up^ William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 885.
  9. Jump up^ "The Holocaust Chronicle". 1937: Quiet Before the Storm. Holocaustchronicle.org. p. 117. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  10. Jump up^ Mittelbau-Dora, Stiftung Gedenkstätte Buchenwald und. "Lampenschirme aus Menschenhaut? - Gedenkstätte Buchenwald". buchenwald.de.
  11. Jump up^ "The most evil women in history". Discovery Channel, 2001.
  12. Jump up^ Höhne, Heinz (2000). The Order of the Death's Head: A History of the SS. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780141390123. The author notes the irony that the SS prosecutor, Konrad Morgen, investigated some cover-up murders of inmates in detail while being ignorant of, or willfully ignoring, the industrialized mass murder later alleged to have been going on in the camps further to the east.
  13. Jump up^ "The "Witch of Buchenwald" is sentenced to prison - Jan 15, 1951 - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  14. Jump up^ Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. 1991. p. 43.
  15. Jump up^ Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights. 5. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1963. pp. 126–136ISBN 978-90-247-0949-6.
  16. Jump up to:a b c "GERMANY: Very Special Present"Time. 25 December 1950.(subscription required)
  17. Jump up^ "Woman decides against suicide Life demanded for Ilse Koch"The Spokesman-Review. 12 January 1951. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  18. Jump up to:a b "Ilse Koch is given life term"Gettysburg Times. 15 January 1951. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  19. Jump up^ Smith, Arthur Lee (1994). Die Hexe von Buchenwald: der Fall Ilse Koch (in German). Böhlau Verlag. p. 146ISBN 978-3-412-10693-5.
  20. Jump up^ "Fun Trivia: N : Nazi Germany: Children of the Nazis". funtrivia.com. Retrieved 23 January 2016.[unreliable source?]
  21. Jump up^ "Koch, Ilse". World War II Graves. Retrieved 23 January 2016.[unreliable source]
  22. Jump up^ Hackett, David A. The Buchenwald Report [Bericht über das Konzentrationslager Buchenwald bei Weimar]. pp. 43, n. 19, 3.
  23. Jump up^ Nikolas Wachsmann, 'KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps' (New York: F,S & G, 2015), p. 618, citing a Feb. 1967 note in her prison file.
  24. Jump up^ "come organisation records". Retrieved 3 February 2013.

References,

  1. Jump up^ Przyrembel, A. (October 2001). "Transfixed by an Image: Ilse Koch, the 'Kommandeuse of Buchenwald'". German History. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 19(3): 369–99. doi:10.1191/026635501680193915ISSN 1477-089X.(subscription required)
  2. Jump up^ Alban, Dan (10 November 2005). "Books Bound in Human Skin; Lampshade Myth?"Harvard Law Record. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
  3. Jump up^ Boyle, Hal (14 August 1947). "Cruel 'Queen of Buchenwald' given a permanent address"The Milwaukee Journal. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  4. Jump up^ "Buchenwald Queen must face German court on release"The Evening Independent. 4 July 1949. p. 15. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  5. Jump up^ "Ilse Koch, Red Witch of Buchenwald, on Trial"Los Angeles Times. 28 November 1950. p. 5. Retrieved 16 December 2012. (subscription required)
  6. Jump up^ "Life sentence for 'Red Witch' of Buchenwald"Lewiston Evening Journal. 15 January 1951. p. 6. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  7. Jump up^ "Army seeks new charges against butcher widow"The Evening Independent. 29 September 1948. p. 3. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  8. Jump up^ William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 885.
  9. Jump up^ "The Holocaust Chronicle". 1937: Quiet Before the Storm. Holocaustchronicle.org. p. 117. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  10. Jump up^ Mittelbau-Dora, Stiftung Gedenkstätte Buchenwald und. "Lampenschirme aus Menschenhaut? - Gedenkstätte Buchenwald". buchenwald.de.
  11. Jump up^ "The most evil women in history". Discovery Channel, 2001.
  12. Jump up^ Höhne, Heinz (2000). The Order of the Death's Head: A History of the SS. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780141390123. The author notes the irony that the SS prosecutor, Konrad Morgen, investigated some cover-up murders of inmates in detail while being ignorant of, or willfully ignoring, the industrialized mass murder later alleged to have been going on in the camps further to the east.
  13. Jump up^ "The "Witch of Buchenwald" is sentenced to prison - Jan 15, 1951 - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  14. Jump up^ Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. 1991. p. 43.
  15. Jump up^ Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights. 5. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1963. pp. 126–136ISBN 978-90-247-0949-6.
  16. Jump up to:a b c "GERMANY: Very Special Present"Time. 25 December 1950.(subscription required)
  17. Jump up^ "Woman decides against suicide Life demanded for Ilse Koch"The Spokesman-Review. 12 January 1951. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  18. Jump up to:a b "Ilse Koch is given life term"Gettysburg Times. 15 January 1951. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  19. Jump up^ Smith, Arthur Lee (1994). Die Hexe von Buchenwald: der Fall Ilse Koch (in German). Böhlau Verlag. p. 146ISBN 978-3-412-10693-5.
  20. Jump up^ "Fun Trivia: N : Nazi Germany: Children of the Nazis". funtrivia.com. Retrieved 23 January 2016.[unreliable source?]
  21. Jump up^ "Koch, Ilse". World War II Graves. Retrieved 23 January 2016.[unreliable source]
  22. Jump up^ Hackett, David A. The Buchenwald Report [Bericht über das Konzentrationslager Buchenwald bei Weimar]. pp. 43, n. 19, 3.
  23. Jump up^ Nikolas Wachsmann, 'KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps' (New York: F,S & G, 2015), p. 618, citing a Feb. 1967 note in her prison file.
  24. Jump up^ "come organisation records". Retrieved 3 February 2013

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

December 1, 2015, Time Magazine, Photography: The Forgotten Images of One of America's Greatest War Photographers, by Dante A. Ciampaglia,

December 1, 2015, Time Magazine, Photography: The Forgotten Images of One of America's Greatest War Photographers, by Dante A. Ciampaglia,

http://time.com/4126406/john-florea-war-photographer/





“Sometimes they got the picture nobody had asked for,” LIFE’s editors wrote in a Nov. 5, 1945, tribute portfolio to the 21 staff photographers who served as correspondents in World War II. But in a lineup that included Robert Capa, Margaret Bourke-White, George Rodger, and W. Eugene Smith, that statement perhaps applied most acutely to John Florea.

The subject of an exceptional exhibition at the Steven Kasher Gallery in New York City, John Florea: World War II, on view through Dec. 19, Florea was a LIFE staffer from 1941 to 1949. He photographed celebrities in Hollywood before being drafted after the attack on Pearl Harbor. He served in the Pacific from 1942 to 1943, then moved to Europe where he contributed some of the magazine's most important, unexpected images: massacres and executions, atrocities and degradation. His work was so monumental that he received a full page in the Nov. 5 portfolio; Bourke-White, Rodger, and Smith all had to share theirs.

But today he’s all but forgotten. Anais Feyeux, curator of the exhibit at the Kasher Gallery, thinks it’s because, unlike Capa or Bourke-White, Florea wasn’t a war photographer. He was a photographer who, like most Americans who went off to war, had a job to do, did it, then came home. “Some people, like Robert Capa, knew before what war was. Not John Florea,” Feyeux says. “You can feel it in the photos. It was a terrible shock to him.”

His first assignment was aboard the aircraft carrier Essex. He shot bombs scrawled with messages from servicemen to the Japanese, broken-up planes on the deck and aerial pictures of the November 1943 invasion of Tarawa. “There’s just the sea, there’s no real battlefield. It’s very abstract,” Feyeux says. “In the Pacific, in the beginning, even the soldiers still have some humor. It’s a kind of innocence he totally lost when he arrived in Europe.”

Florea’s introduction to the Western Front was the Battle of the Bulge. He found himself, quite suddenly, in the thick of the fighting. As he slopped through mud and took cover from incoming bombardments, his photography became raw and kinetic, intimately capturing the fear, confusion, and brotherhood of soldiers running from bombs, considering an overturned tank or burying their dead.

On his march through Europe, Florea also documented war’s impact on civilians: a hardened German woman sitting atop all her possessions in the rubble of a bombed-out Cologne, or German children peeking around a ruined wall as American jeeps roar through town. It was during this time that he made one of his most arresting photographs: an image of a 15-year-old German soldier crying after being captured. It is an image that sits at the intersection of war’s wholesale destruction of the individual and Germany’s specific brand of wartime depravity.

Indeed, Florea witnessed some of the war’s worst crimes, not least of all the Malmedy Massacre, where 84 unarmed American prisoners were murdered by German troops on Dec. 17, 1944. Florea’s photographs of the carnage—bodies strewn in the snow, their arms up in an act of surrender, their faces hollowed out by pecking birds—are as wrenching today as they were 71 years ago.

“Have you ever really gotten hit in the gut hard and lose your breath and fall to your knees? You know how that hurts,” Florea told fellow LIFE photographer John Loengard in 1993, reflecting on his time as a war correspondent. “I felt someone had hit me so hard—I actually cried.”

It only got worse from there. In April 1945, Florea and the First Army freed American prisoners of war from the notorious German prison camp Stalag 12-A. The men they found had only been there for three months, yet they looked more skeletal than human. Florea’s photo of the bony body of a man named Joe Demler stretched out on a hard wooden bed, as well as a haunting portrait of an unnamed man whose penetrating gaze bored through the camera’s lens, would later prove to be two of the most indelible images of the war.

The scope of Nazi atrocity was realized a few weeks later with the discovery of the Nordhausen concentration camp. There, Florea and the troops found the ground strewn with bodies, warehouses stacked full of corpses and a pit filled with the ashes of 60,000 people. Florea tried to capture the incomprehensible by shooting not only numerous photos of the dead, but also the genocide’s impact on the living. One triptych shows a man and his son, survivors, burying their wife and mother. In the end, LIFE chose to run just one of these photos: a vertical shot of 3,000 bodies arranged side by side, stretching from the front of the frame to the horizon.

After two harrowing years in Europe, Florea returned to America and, like so many servicemen, to his life. “I think when he comes back, he’s a civilian,” Feyeux says. “Some people disappear because they do something else.”

In Florea’s case, that was television. After a falling-out with LIFE executive editor Wilson Hicks that cost him his job, Florea gave up photography for TV. He directed episodes of hit shows like Highway Patrol and Sea Hunt in the late 1950s and worked steadily in the industry through the mid-1980s, directing and producing episodes of CHiPs, V and MacGyver.

“I got into an environment that I enjoyed,” Florea told Loengard. “But I’ll never be remembered for that. The only thing I’ll be remembered for is what I had done for LIFE magazine.”

With the work Florea accomplished during his time with the magazine, that’s a legacy worth reclaiming.

http://www.whale.to/b/holocaust_prop_p.html,

(279) The US weekly magazine Life (21/05/1945, page 36), comments: ‘The bodies of almost 3,000 slave laborers being buried by US soldiers. These dead worked in underground factories in the manufacture of V1 and V2 rockets.

In actual fact, these dead were the victims of the US terror attack on Nordhausen on 4 April 1945. Although the war was almost over, German cities continued to be bombed. Thus, the city of Nordhausen was bombed and almost totally destroyed on 4 April (2 days before the evacuation of the camp to Bergen-Belsen), also destroying the Boelke barracks in which the inmates were being housed. (From the series of publications from the Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte, number 21, Stuttgart page 194, Prof. Martin Broszat).

Mittelbau-Dora,

The high-resolution image above shows the bombing's devastation to camp facilities. Life magazine published a cropped version---what Time magazine called "a vertical shot" of 3,000 bodies.

The video below contains a newsreel clip shot and narrated by the U.S. military unit that liberated Nordhausen, stating the 3,000 political prisoners died at the "brutal hands of SS troops and hardened German criminals who were the camp guards." Moreover, the American official describes Nordhausen as a  "a depository for slaves found unfit for work in the underground V-bomb plants, or in other German camps and factories." (Apparently they hadn't yet got the memo asserting anyone unfit for work was immediately selected at the railway siding and sent to a gas chamber.)

It's difficult to tell from the image above if the dead consist solely of men, but it seems probable, given the American assertion that the camp held political slave laborers who were too ill to work. This makes Time-Life's claim that Florea had  photographed  "a man and his son, survivors, burying their wife and mother,"  seem highly unlikely. And even with a high rate of starvation and tuberculosis amongst the living and dead, military officials knew what had caused the vast majority to perish within this great sea of unburied dead---and that was the United States Army-Air Forces' terror bombing campaign days earlier.








at 12:44

Nordhausen Concentration Camp,

Transcript:
The slave labor Camp at Nordhausen, liberated by the 3rd Armored Division, 1st Army, at least 3,000 political prisoners died here at the brutal hands of SS troops and hardened German criminals who were the camp guards. Nordhapartyusen had been a depository for slaves found unfit for work in the underground V-bomb plants, or in other German camps and factories. Amid the corpses are human skeletons, too weak to move. Men of our medical battalions worked two days and nights binding wounds and giving medications, but for advanced cases of starvation and tuberculosis there often were no cures. Survivors are shown being evacuated to Allied hospitals



You Tube



March 26, 1945, Bombed city of Cologne in Germany during World War II, HD Stock Footage, 0:59
Posted by Critical Past, [Original Source]

A snippet of much longer footage shot in color by American military to government authorities. Sign board displayed saying "S. Project # 186, X 16-McCord, March - 26," which adds another name to the list of authors working after the U.S. took control of the city.



British terror bombing - Cathedral of Cologne hit by seventy bombs, 1:02, German Newsreel Film,
Uploaded by by silvan500, on December 28, 2011,

F. Liszt - Tasso, Lamento credited onscreen, [Thanks given to user BlitzWotan]
(In German, with English subtitles; Transcript below)
The Cologne cathedral has been hit hard by the bombs of the British terrorist pilots. Made, according to their own admission, almost invisible by a dense cloud cover, the British terrorists bombarded the Hanseatic town on the Rhine, with its venerable monuments and unique art treasures.
The bombs broke through the vault, causing havoc inside the cathedral. Built over a period of six and a half centuries and considered sacrosanct by the entire civilized world, the cathedral was destroyed by the British air-raid barbarians in just a few minutes.

Destroyed building of Cologne Cathedral after Allied bombing in Cologne, Germany. HD Stock Footage,. 1:03
(Portugese Newsreel) Published by CriticalPast on May 4, 2014



Street Fighting in Cologne, March 26, 1945, 2:40
Published on Audie Murphy American Legend, February 9, 2013,



Pershing vs Panther Cologne 1945, 2:59
Uploaded by Rammjaeger83 on Dec 14, 2007,
(History Channel)



The Ruins of Cologne - (Köln) after the 2nd World War., 3:00
Uploaded by Fritz Schone, on Jul 2, 2008

(German proper place-names throughout the city on screen)


Cologne's Fate - No Sound, 3:32
Published by British Movietone, on July 21, 2015,

B & W aerial footage that mostly focuses on burned-out industrial areas and transportation network on the outskirts of Cologne proper., and as such, seems politically motivated. Ends with an interesting short of the interior of the Cologne cathedral, with the camera panning up to show the roof intact. Undated, but likely taken in the first weeks or months after the fires had cooled. Barring an "AP" logo, maybe the corporate stepchild of British Movietone,


The Americans capture Cologne, 3:42
Uploaded by johnsatyricon, on Jun 26, 2008



Panther v's M26 Pershing The Battle of Cologne (Köln), 3:54
Uploaded by spottydog4477 on October 6, 2009,



Cologne Captured (1945) / Köln wird besiegt (British Pathe), 3:56
Published by British Pathé on Apr 13, 2014



3rd Armored Division in Cologne, World War II,4:03
Uploaded by 3rd Armored Division on March 27, 2008,



✠Panzerschlacht in Köln✠ tank battle cologne HD 1080p, 4:02
Published by Feldgrau on May 10, 2014,



The Battle For Cologne; Bombing of Cologne in World War II, 5:30
Published by afterthewar1945 on May 28, 2012

Transcript of the narration:
First narrator (Importuning)
...in a person's life when their training, talent and heart are tested in the extreme. Jim Bates's finest hour was during the battle for Cologne. For a veteran combat photographer, it was an opportunity to test all his skills as a soldier, and as a photographer. It was his success in Cologne that earned him the Bronze Star.
At 0:24 Second Narrator (From the original 1945 newsreel soundtrack)
The German tank is found and the T-26 hits its mark. The German tank is hit squarely and as the gunner tries to escape, the second shell cuts off his leg. The driver and assistant clamber to escape as another shell is fired. Burning alive, the gunner lies over the edge of his coffin on wheels, while his companions run for cover, and the concussion from the 90-millimeter gun is so great, camera steadiness is impossible
At 0:55 Third Narrator (Jim Bates, a cameraman, giving a modern-day disquisition)
By this time we had a new T-26, the T-26 was ah---had a 90-millimeter with a cuts....cuts-compensator on the front of it. It was an amazing piece of machinery, it was heavily armored, it was just...it was a far cry...ah....the Germans who saw it really never lived to bring back the story because, it---that was it, (giggle). They never lived long enough to take the story back as to what this tank was about. It was just so far ahead of the old Shermans it was unbelievable.

So the fellow, the commander of the T-26, Jimmy, said, ah...¨let's go down and see what we can see on that tank,,¨ and he says, ¨I don't know what we're going to run into, we may never get back, but he said [audio elided] ¨...there, when I stop, I'm ready to fire.¨

So the tank commander---of the tank, who I knew very well of course---ah, ah...of the T-47 left and went back up to his tank and I sat there, and it seemed like it took forever and a day for them to get started, but of course they had to get all of the mathematics and every...[audio elided] and the very second he stopped --- I was shooting by that time, and in the film you can see the armor-piercing shell going through the bottom of the picture on the still shots. The first shot went in and cut the legs off the tank commander, in the Tiger, The second shot---and immediately the driver and the gunner...the trapdoor...the doors...the trap doors flew open, and they climbed out., but the second shot, the shrapnel had got them too. Ah, one fellow fell over a bicycle that was laying there on the ground, the remains of an old bicycle, and he died right there. But the driver got around to the backside of a building and he died right there.

The...the...gunner...the tank commander that had...ah...his legs cut off, of course, just laid on top of his tank and burned up right in front of the camera there. It was just unbelievable---that thing was burning even the next morning, after it was all over, there was still smoke coming out of it because it had so much ammunition and whatnot in it. The ...[audio elided] ...and..the ...Heroes...General Hereos Hospital in Denver, the veteran's hospital, is named after him
At 3:20 Returns to the period newscaster from the 1940's newsreel:
A very tired and silent crew it was that dealt the death blow to the German tank, to help prove to a nation crazed with power that its men and cities could be dealt with in the same manner as it had previously dealt with Poland and Russia when the war was going its way. But tall spires of Cologne cathedral will mark only the grave of a dead and battle-torn city.

Battle of Cologne, 6:51
Uploaded by PPLDTV, on February 12, 2008

Combat photographer Jim Bates talks about his experiences filming a tank battle during the Battle of Cologne in March of 1945.


January 20, 1944, Film - DWS 698 - Abwehr eines US Bomberangriffes am 11. 01. 1944, 8:21
uploaded by 1DeutschesLand, on Jun3 16, 2013,



Cologne March 1945: Duel at the Cathedral - The lost human stories, 9:31
Published by Filmschatze Aus Koln - Vom Rhein - Weltfilmerbe, on March 2, 2015



HD Stock Footage WWII Lest We Forget R7 - Ruhr River, Battle of Cologne, 9:56
Published by Buyout Footage Historic Film Archive on March 23, 2013,



Battle for Cologne - Tank Duel, 9:59
Uploaded by anicursor on January 9, 2010,

WWII. The battle for Cologne. Tank duel at the cathedral, March 6, 1945. The US army, 3rd AD, enters Cologne. Chronic and analytical presentation of the famous tank duel at the Cologne cathedral. See the fascinating original film with descriptions. 10 minutes of interesting film scenes show the destruction of a Sherman tank, the destruction of a Panther tank and the escaping crew members. 5 presentation parts show different analyses. Original film scenes show injured persons. Some of the subtitles are very short. The time where I published the video (2010) there was a 10 min. limitation for youtube videos, so I had to create fast subtitles to have more time for the action. More detailed information about this incidents here: Special - tank duel at the cathedral (1),


Street Fighting In Cologne, 10:47
Uploaded by COALMONK5 on Mar 4, 2010

On 6th March 1945 elements of the 3rd Armoured Division and U.S. 1st Army fought their way into the German city of Cologne. The following footage was taken by Sgt. Jim Bates of the 1st Army Signal Corps. (Warning- some graphic content).

Cologne, 3rd Armored Division Street Fighting H1573-05 | Footage Farm, 12:16
Published by footagefarm on November 19, 2014,

If you wish to acquire broadcast quality material of this reel or want to know more about our Public Domain collection, contact us at info@footagefarm.co.uk WWII - 1945, Germany, 3rd Armored Division Street Fighting, Cologne, 06Mar45] LIB 3754
Street fighting in Cologne (?); tank crew on tank looking tired.
13:02:23 Slate: Rosenmann, 05Mar45 Cologne. Troops & tanks past rubble lining both sides of street; tank firing, infantry firing rifle; other tanks move up. Tank firing. Explosions.
13:03:31 Smoking truck w/ body laying outside open door; tank past & firing down street towards Cathedral towers. Infantry firing.
13:04:37 German soldier surrendering. Views of tank firing machine guns. Tank hit & burning in street. GOOD.
13:05:43 CU tank turret turning; wrecked / destroyed buildings. Tank firing beside park.
13:06:10 Infantry running up behind; officer giving instructions, on field telephone by jeep as infantry advancing.
13:06:44 LIB 3753. Slate: Camera Bates. 06Mar45 Cologne.
13:06:49 Advancing tank watched by infantry. GIs w/ rifles firing from on top of debris. Tanks advance. Men firing machine gun from top of pile of bricks. Intersection w/ debris & car; car leaving w/ tracers fired at it.
13:07:51 MS Tank in street catching fire as crewman climbs out, runs off as flames grow & tank burns. Tilt up spires of Cathedral.
13:08:58 Infantry along street past rubble. Explosion & GIs running across street w/ Cathedral in background.
13:09:35 Pan across German illustrated propoganda poster to infantry behind corner of building. GOOD.
13:09:50 Smoke filled street, explosions. Tracers towards man crossing street who runs. GIs kick door in, run up street; CU knocking in door w/ axe. Infantry moving forward, running along street; past destroyed buildings. Tank moves pst; firing, tracers seen fired & hitting building. Cathedral past twisted steel.
13:12:16 Slate. Same. Infantry in doorways, tank slowly moving, firing. Explosion at end of street, front of building collapses into street. Infantry past wrecked cars & buildings. Searching car beside street; tanks behind. Investigate body of young woman in car. Coat put over body outside car. WW2 Fighting; Battle; City; NOTE: Good coverage & action.


M4 Sherman Tank - Crew tell how shocking it was, 12:53
Uploadedby spottydog4477 on Sep 18, 2011



Köln 1945 in Farbe - Cologne 1945 in color, 15:22,
Kommentar von Heinz Meichsner, Filmschatze Aus,
Köln -- Von Rhein,- Weltfilmerbe,



Battle for Cologne Tank Battle 1945, 17:09
Published by Ebol Evedo on February 22, 2016



Battle of Cologne 1945 - A young woman between the frontlines - U.S. first time release, 18:04
Published by Filmschätze Aus Koln - Vom Rhein - Weltfilmerbe, on November 23, 2015,



Battle Of The Peace - Post-WWII Cologne Germany Part-1, 18:47
Army-Navy Screen Magazine: 1945 - Issue 66
Date: 1945
Duration: 00:18:47
Sound: Yes
Color: Monochrome
Type: Public Domain
Language: English
Location: Germany
Cologne Germany 1930, brief scene of German Dictator Adolf Hitler, the WWII-era destruction of Cologne Germany with bombed out ruins and it rebuilding by the new American occupation forces and U.S. Military Government from espousing Democratic ideals to rebuilding of infrastructure.
Shot List:
r1:00:00:42;14, City of Cologne Germany before WWII
r1:00:01:14;04, German Dictator Adolf Hitler and ironic prophetic statement "Give me five years and you will not recognize Germany"
r1:00:01:27;08, Post-WWII Cologne Germany in absolute ruin and rubble
r1:00:01:51;04, Bombed out building and destroyed infrastructure
r1:00:02:37;11, Ceremony of U.S. Military Government MG taking over the day-to-day affairs of running Cologne Germany
r1:00:03:45;20, German citizens gather to listen to the first orders from the new Military Government
r1:00:04:12;12, Pesticide DDT powder is used to delouse the German population to kill lice and quell a Typhus epidemic
r1:00:04:43;19, German is discovered as being part of the infamous SS when his SS tattoo is discovered during check-up by U.S. Army medic
r1:00:05:12;14, Long lines of Germans waiting to be interviewed by the Military Government to weed out hard-core Nazis and determine those who will help rebuild the city
r1:00:06:24;17, Group of German citizens become the first local police force for Post-WWII Cologne Germany and given armbands labeled M.G. - Police
r1:00:07:12;22, Worker on ladder takes down Nazi Eagle and Swastika
r1:00:07:19;19, Nazi propaganda items removed and replaced with Military Government Democratic ideals and rules
r1:00:07:44;03, Demolition of bombed out building begin with help of reconstituted Fire Department
r1:00:08:07;03, German citizens with Nazi affiliations are formed into press gangs to clear rubble
r1:00:08:38;16, Food is distributed to German citizens under the watchful eye of the Military Govt.
r1:00:09:03;04, Germans both young and old farm food outside the city
r1:00:09:30;15, Former slave labor to the Nazis now displaced persons gather for ration coupons at U.S. MG

Battle Of The Peace - Post-WWII Cologne Germany Part-2, 9:06
Army-Navy Screen Magazine: 1945 - Issue 66 Reel-2
Post-WWII Cologne Germany with its bombed out ruins and its rebuilding by the new American occupation forces and U.S. Military Government.
Date: 1945
Duration: 00:09:06
Sound: Yes
Color: Monochrome
Type: Public Domain
Language: English
Location: Germany
Shot List:
r2:00:00:12;15, Former slave labor to the Nazis now displaced persons gather for ration coupons at U.S. Military Government
r2:00:02:00;19, Coal production begin to operate again; coal brickettes produced
r2:00:03:34;13, Printing of U.S. Army German-Language newspaper; German citizens reading the newspaper
r2:00:04:01:20, Corpus Christi celebrated in front of the Cologne cathedral
r2:00:04:13;17, German-Jews gathering for temple
r2:00:04:37;10, Dedication ceremony for marble monument in a Cologne park marking concentration camp victims
r2:00:05:27;15, Scenes of Military Government court and trial system
r2:00:06:45;05, Convicted German criminals sent to former Gestapo prison now Military Government prison
r2:00:07:44;15, German children playing outside, using sewing machine outside, knitting, making crafts
r2:00:08:20;05, German children throwing Nazi Swastika symbols, flags and propaganda posters on to a bonfire


Köln 1945 - Nahaufnahmen, 16:26
Published by FILMSCHÄTZE AUS KÖLN - VOM RHEIN - WELTFILMERBE, on March 6, 2013,
Jetzt in voller Länge ansehen in Full HD als Video on Demand: ►►http://1945kriegsende.rheindvd.de/ oder als erweiterte Special Edition auf Doppel-DVD:
This video shows a section from my documentation: Cologne 1945 close-ups, which first appeared in 2008. On March 6, 1945 Katharina Esser, a 26-year-old with a private car on the Kaiser Wilhelmring, gets caught between the fighting units and is fired on from both sides. In front of a running US film camera, the car remains in the middle of the battle zone and is exposed to an inferno.
After the fights seem to fade away, the film camera shows the young woman, who is wounded, but apparently alive and able to recover. During my ongoing research, I met two surviving soldiers who had fought against each other on March 6, 1945 in Cologne. Both told me before a running camera that they had shot at this young woman and probably hit her. I too, of course, knew the film pictures of the young woman who had been treated by US medical men on the Christophstrasse.
But also the many other terribly distorted dead, who lay down there at the entrance to the inner city of Cologne for days in the streets. After the two conversations with the army members Clarence Smoyer and Gustav Schäfer, I went on to search for more. They succeeded in finding the young woman's family. But the vague hope that she had left this place of horror alive could not be fulfilled. The horror news made me realize with a rare force what war really meant.
To date, the relatives did not know that Katharina was filmed in her most dramatic hour. The pictures went around the world at the time - not infrequently with the comment that you had a Nazi car caught. So sad is the fate of Katharina Esser, so fascinating are the research results that were still to be found after such a long time.
Shop: http://www.koelnprogramm-shop.de,
https://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&hl=ro&rurl=translate.google.ro&sl=de&sp=nmt4&tl=en&u=http://www.anicursor.com/youtube.html&usg=ALkJrhhitniPXI7T43YbYhEu8Y4M0V0Itw
Köln 1945 - Nahaufnahmen: Eine junge Frau zwischen den Fronten. DVD/VoD
FILMSCHÄTZE AUS KÖLN - VOM RHEIN - WELTFILMERBE

16:26
The first 1,000 bomber raid by the RAF was codenamed Operation Millennium, Cologne was chosen as the target and the raid took place on the night of May 30-31, 1942.
Operation Millennium war der Deckname für die Bombardierung Kölns in der Nacht vom 30. auf den 31. Mai 1942, bei dem die Royal Air Force (RAF) erstmals über 1000 Bomber gleichzeitig einsetzte, weshalb er auch als erster 1000-Bomber-Angriff bekannt ist.
[Operation Millennium was the cover name for the bombing of Cologne on the night of May 30th, 1942, when the Royal Air Force (RAF) used 1000 bombers at the s

For the first time in English: March 1945 - Duel at the Cathedral,
http://www.rheindvd.de/2016/02/15/for-the-first-time-in-english-march-1945-duel-at-the-cathedral/
Cologne is the largest city in the world. Nazi propaganda has declared the city to be defended to the last cartridge. Witness the US troops first hand on their advance from the outskirts of the Rhine and the fascinating research of the Cologne journalist and film historian Hermann Rheindorf.
Cologne, Germany, the famous Cathedral city in March 1945.
Eight months after D-Day, the US troops are now on the cusp of a long-awaited milestone, the crossing of the Rhine. The impending battle has been dominated by the headlines of the world press for days.
Dozens of correspondents, photographers, and cameramen have followed the US troops in order to report in detail on the event. Some of the shots taken by the cameramen of the US World War II. The battle for cologne ends with a final, dramatic tank duel at the base of the cathedral. The film footage makes the engagement the most famous tank duel in the world. However, the people in these scenes were still remain unknown.
Based on several years of research into the background and contemporary witnesses, this documentary reconstructs the advance of US troops into cologne and shows critical moments of the battle for the city in March 5 -7, 1945.
Featured eyewitnesses:
Andy Rooney (correspondent " The Starts & Stripes ",
Clarence Smoyer (3rd Armored Division),
Francis Wilber (104th Infantry Division),
James Bates (US Signal corps cameraman),
Robert Ziller (RAF-cameraman),
Engelbert Bockhoff (9th Panzer Division),
Gustav S. Häfer (Panzerbrigade 106),
Günther Müller (360 Volksgrenadier-Division) and many others.
Now available as VoD on vimeo.com
Watch the new 2015 english language version here,
This research was mostly done in 2006/7 by the Cologne based journalist Hermann Rheindorf and first published in 2008. Get the updated 2015 special english language edition: Trailer:
Watch the full documentary in HD on Vimeo-VoD/Downlad:
Also available on DVD for the first time in the US.

Sunday, February 12, 2017



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xe_53ks0SeM

Siren sound
Hit sound
 Through the western location of the city and the existence of the Rhine as a good navigational aid, Cologne was a favorite target for the Allies in the war. On 12 May 1940 the first small air attack took place on Cologne, on the night of March 2, 1941, the first large attack with about 1000 bombers occurred. On March 2, 1945, there was the last of a total of 262 air raids. This was once again particularly violent, because the Allies wanted to clear the way for the advancing groups of troops in the truest sense of the word.

During this entire period, there were 1,122 airliner alarms and 1,089 "public air warnings" (which had been introduced as a new alarm signal in August 1942). These alarms caused the population to spend up to 2,000 hours in air-raid shelters or basements, equivalent to 83 days and nights or nearly three months. If the local broadcasters suddenly stopped transmitting, this meant that an attack threatened, because attacking units were oriented on radiosignals, and therefore they were switched off in the event of the detection of advancing enemy units. People fled into the shelters and cellars after the sound of the sirens. Especially at the beginning of the air war there were not many public shelters. When a house was hit, survivors could also flee to neighboring cellars through connecting openings. Frequently, however, every possibility of escape had been spilled, cellars collapsed or smoldered by fire so that there was no escape for the people. They were slain by the rubble in collapsed cellars or stifled agonizingly. Of the war dead in Cologne two thirds died in the shelters and cellars.


The biggest destruction of Cologne during the Second World War came about by the first 1,000 bomber attack of the war - cover name "Operation Millennium". Exactly 1,096 bomber aircraft started from Allied airfields and flew a violent attack on the city in the night from the 30th to the 31st May 1942 between 0.47 and 2.25 clock. Until shortly before the start of the operation, Hamburg was also seen as a possible alternative destination, but bad weather over northern Germany left the decision in the short term to Cologne. 243 ha / 2.4 sq km of the city were put into rubble during this major attack, about 30,000 houses damaged or destroyed. Only 300 houses survived the attack undisturbed. About 1,500 tons of bombs fell on the city. Two thirds of the dropped bombs were fire bombs, which then caused about 12,000 individual fires in the city, leading to 1,700 major fires. Because of the fact that many inhabitants had already left the city during the war, there were "only" about 480 dead. In addition, there were 5,000 injured, there were 45,000 homeless people.

Even though many of the fires had already been caused by this attack, there was the phenomenon of the firestorm for the first time in a major attack on June 29, 1943, counting about 4,400 dead. After this attack, there were already 230,000 homeless people in the city.

At the beginning of the war about 770,000 citizens lived in Cologne, in the end only 40,000. The air raids resulted in a total of about 20,000 deaths. During the entire air war, about 1.5 million bombs fell to Cologne.
















https://secure.alamy.com/purchase/cust-order-confirm.aspx


































Devastated, Dead Cologne




The True German Holocaust





























Nuremberg, Germany, view of the destroyed city Hospice of the Holy Ghost, One of the largest medieval hospitals in Europe, it was restored post-1945, and is now a restaurant.












 Nuremberg view of the destroyed city St. Sebald church
























Saturday, February 11, 2017

November 1942





 11/01/1942 Death Of 55 Poles In Day Reported (Reprisal For Destruction Of Train)6

 11/01/1942 Army Has 800,000 In Forces Abroad-300,000 Men Since Sept. 2-Mc Cloy Then Put A. E. F. At About 500,00016

 11/01/1942 Extension Urged Of Balfour Pledge-Rabbi (Louis L.) Newman Says Liberty And Progress Would Be Aided By Its Renewal-Holds Adversity Purifies28

 11/01/1942 Chaplain Wrecks Legend Of Dec. 7 (Chaplain William A. Maguire Says He Did Not Man A Navy Gun At Pearl Harbor Attack)35

11/01/1942 (Francis Perkins) Asks 3,000,000 Rise In Women Workers52 

11/01/1942 Manpower Shortage Widely Felt, Presses A Question On CongressE-7

11/01/1942 Colleges Of Country Now Mobilized For WarE-9

11/01/1942 Education Policies Of Government Hit (By Dr. Samuel P. Capen, University Of Buffalo)E-9

11/01/1942 Palestine Moves: Program Has Been Marked, An Authority (Dr. Judah Leon Magnes, Resident Of Jerusalem) AssertsE-

11 11/01/1942 World In France: From Versailles To Pearl Harbor, By Leopold Swartzschlld, L. B. Fisher Pub. Corp., N.Y.-’How Germany Won The Peace’Book1

11/01/1942 A New Constitution Now, By Henry Hazlitt, Whittlesey House, N.-Y.-’Is The United States In Need Of A New Constitution?’Book 3

11/01/1942 A Treasury Of Great Poems, English And American, Louis UntermeyerBook 8

11/01/1942 ‘He Is Our Eisen And This Is Our Hour’ (Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower)7

11/01/1942 Chemist Who Created A State (Dr. Chaim Weizmann)Mag. 12&39

11/01/1942 No ‘Hyphens’ (‘Hyphenate Americans’) This TimeMag. 18

11/02/1942 Morrison Chides (U.S.) Critics Of Britain-Some ‘Talk As Though We Were The Britain Of 1776’

11/02/1942 Yugoslavs Report Croatia Victories (Moscow Report-No Mention Of Guerrilla Leader’s Name)3

11/02/1942 (3 Speakers - McConnell, Eichelberger, & Goldstein) Stress Jewish Problem4

11/02/1942 Morgenthau Back From London Visit5

11/02/1942 Cardinal (Dougherty, Archbishop Of Philadelphia) Calls For War To Death (‘If We Do Not Win, ‘Vultures’ Will Devour Us.’)10

11/02/1942 Hitler Burned In Effigy (Union City, N. J.)11

11/02/1942 Palestine Project Pushed By Senator (Thomas, Utah)21

11/02/1942 Jewish Fund Asks Palestine Colony (Senator Saltonstall, Mass., Hails Plan)22

11/02/1942 Louis) Lipsky (Vice-President Of Zionist Organization Of America) Accuses England22

11/02/1942Mail Gifts Eased To Axis Captives23

11/03/1942Halifax’s Son Killed In Fighting In Egypt (Two More Sons-British Library Of Information)3

11/03/1942 Yugoslavs (Under Mikhailovitch) Divert Large Axis Forces7

11/03/1942 Gandhi Holds U.S. Involved In India-Ally Of Britain’Cannot Disown Responsibility’10

11/03/1942 Refugees (From Portugal On Ship ‘Carvalho Araujo’) At Baltimore (30 Polish Engineers On Way To Canada)11

11/03/1942 Radio Jobs Open For Women In War20

11/04/1942 Fish And Coudert Win (Opposed By Liberals)-Fish Is Re-Elected1

11/04/1942 Polish Governor Reported Ousted (Stockholm Report)-Hans Frank Dismissed As ‘Too Humane’ To Please Hitler 2

11/04/1942 French Bombings Hit Doriot (Pro-NSDAP) Party15

11/04/1942 Shipbuilding Tops Sinkings By Enemy 15

11/04/1942 Big Nazi Spy Ring Is Traced To Chile-Center Of Espionage In Americas 19

11/04/1942 Spy Trial Witness (Defendant) Charges Duress 19

11/04/1942 The First Edition Of The New Stars And Stripes19

11/05/1942 U.S. Forge Of 7,000 Arrives In Egypt1

11/05/1942 Rommel In Full Retreat, Tanks, Guns Smashed1

11/05/1942 Says Tugwell Plots To Capture (Nationalize Puerto Rican) Utilities18

11/05/1942 (Harry L.) Hopkins Predicts Big Shift Of Labor19

11/05/1942 Fish To Continue Fight On New Deal (Representative From Roosevelt’s Home District)30

11/06/1942 British General Announces Complete Victory As Fliers Pound Rommel’s Retreating Army 1

11/06/1942 Von Thoma Seized When Car Was Hit (Gen. Georg Von Stumme Killed) 3

11/06/1942 All Jews’ Aid Asked For Russia’s Battle (By Rabbi J. H. Herz, Chief Rabbi Of Britain) 8

11/06/1942Wounded Germans Flooding Austria8

11/07/194250 Colleges Close Because Of War1

11/07/1942Dr. (Stephen S.) Wise In Mexico City-He Will Hold Conferences About Aid To Oppressed Jews Abroad (No Mention Of Mass Killings Of Jews)3

11/07/1942Mikhailovitch Finds Inspiration In U.S.4

11/07/1942Madagascar Signs British Armistice4

11/07/1942Roosevelt, Hull Felicitate Soviet (On The 25 Th Anniversary Of The Establishment Of The Soviet Union)8

11/08/1942American Forces (Under Eisenhower) Land In French Africa111/08/1942Petain Says Vichy Will ‘Defend’ Lands1

11/08/1942(U.N.) Appeals And Proclamation To French People811/08/1942(General) Juin Heads Chiefs Of African Forces16

11/08/1942Full Unity Urged With Russians (By Congress Of American-Soviet Friendship)3611/08/1942Russians Hold Nazis In Caucasus; Armored Trains Stop Foe’s Tanks3811/08/1942Sweden Deplores Terror In Norway38

11/08/1942Rommel Routed (Map, E-4)E-111/08/1942Rommel’s Defeat Linked To Nazis’ Caucasus Push (Map Of Caucasus)E-5

11/08/1942Infamous Prelude To Pearl Harbor (By Arthur Krock)Mag. 1

11/09/1942Marshal (Petain) Is Bitter-He Finds Roosevelt Note ‘Stupefying’ And Denies All Its Premises-Weygand Called In-Orders Issued To Defend Empire1

11/09/1942Hard Fight At Oran1

11/09/1942General Giraud Emerges To Urge French In Africa To Join (U.N.) Allies1

11/09/1942Pictures: Officers In Charge Of American Operations In Africa8

11/09/1942Text Of President Roosevelt’s Letters And Petain’s Reply10

11/09/1942Our Vichy Policy, A Help, Hull Says10

11/09/1942Batista (Cuba) Refuses Spy Aid (Heinz August Luning To Be Shot)10

11/09/1942Excerpts From The Speech Made By Reichsfuehrer Hitler At Munich13

11/09/1942(Henry A.) Wallace Assures Russia Priority (Text)19

11/09/1942 Spiritual Revival Hailed By Lehman-Speaks At Jewish Parley (No Mention Of Killing Of Jews)-Hails Our ‘New Vigor’26

11/10/1942 Giraud Gets Post As French Leader (From U.S. & Britain)1

11/10/1942 Roosevelt Rebukes Laval As Diplomatic Ties Are Cut1

11/10/1942 (Tom) Connally Pledges Revival Of France6

11/10/1942 Roosevelt Extols U.S. Aid In Egypt (Hundreds Of Tanks & 20,000 Trucks)10

11/10/1942 (Francis) Biddle ‘Unable’ To Defer Ap Suit23

11/10/1942 Opening Of Palestine To (Jewish) Immigrants Urged (By Rabbi Israel Goldstein-Opening Under ‘Jewish Auspices’)23

11/10/1942 Banks Now Listing Vichy As An Enemy35

11/10/1942Volume In Stocks Best Of The Year3511/11/1942Hitler To Take Over All France And Corsica111/11/1942Churchill Credits Plan To President (Roosevelt-11 Months After Pearl Harbor Attack!)111/11/1942Rios (Chile) Promises U.S. Full Cooperation311/11/1942Giraud Wore Garb Of Woman To Flee (German Captivity)411/11/1942Hitler Message To French People611/11/1942R. A. F. Planes Blast Hamburg At Night711/11/1942Education Called Force For Victory (By Chester S. Williams)1711/12/1942Petain Protests New Nazi Invasion111/12/1942Hull Denounces Nazi French Move311/12/1942Indians See Threat In Churchlll Talk (Unrest, Dislike Of Britain)311/12/1942Giraud Fled By Air In A British Plane4

11/12/1942Hitler Letter To Petain (Text) Announcing Move Across France411/12/1942Learn To Hate Foe (General) M’nair Tells Troops-It’s Kill Or Be Killed411/12/1942Peril To Refugees In France Growing (200,000 Jews In Unoccupied Zone, Many Possess U.S. Visas-Valid Or Forged)7

11/12/1942Roosevelt Hails French As Allies (But Not Vichy Government!)20

11/13/1942A Spy Thriller Trip By (General Mark) Clark Paved Way For Africa Drive (Attack-Not Unlike Hess’s?)111/13/1942Nazi Peace Terms To Vichy Reported (By London)311/13/1942War Transformed By U.S., Smuts Says5

11/13/1942(General) Pershing Appeals To French To Fight511/13/1942Vichy Americans Arrive At Lourdes-’Incriminating’ Papers Reported Found In (Vacated) U.S. Embassy711/13/19423,052 Planes Sent To Russia In Year (4,084 Tanks & 30,031 Vehicles-London Report-Sent By U.S. And England In The Past 12 Month Period)1011/13/1942Rabbi (Philip) Bernstein (Rochester, N.Y.) In War Work10

11/14/1942Darlan Proclaims African ‘Command’111/14/1942Pole Urges Pact In Eastern Europe711/14/1942C.I.O. Head (Philip Murray) Congratulated (By Harry Bridges) On His Re-Election3011/15/1942Six Found Guilty Of Treason In Aiding German Saboteurs111/15/1942Scientists Deny Race Superiority4111/15/1942Aims In War Listed By Jewish Women4211/15/1942Palestine Still A HaveN-1,000 French Orphans Awaited If Journey Possible (38,000 Had Arrived By Sept. 30, 1942)4411/16/1942French Troops Assist Ours In Raid On Arabs Near Oran111/16/1942Allies In October Got $915,000,000 (Lend-Lease) Aid8

11/16/1942(Rep. George Grant, Alabama) Says Four Freedoms Include Jewish Army10

11/16/1942733 Rabbis Rebuke Anti-Zionist Jews-Sees Post-War Misery14

11/17/1942U.S. Smashes Japanese Fleet In Solomons1

11/17/1942De Gaullists Bar A Darlan Deal; Seek U.S. Reassurances On Status1

11/17/1942Bbc Floods Europe With African News5

11/17/1942(Striking) Girls (In Luxembourg) Deported To Reich911/17/1942Andorra Receives Hitler ‘Guarantee’1111/17/1942World Solidarity Urged For Peace (By Governments In Exile)-Germany’s Fate Is A Topic1511/17/19421,521 (Notables) Sign Appeal For Jewish Army (Names Listed)23

11/18/1942Portuguese Protest Allied Plane Flights (Violations Of Its Territory)111/18/1942President (Roosevelt) Says Darlan Deal Is ‘A Temporary Expedient’(Was It Ever!)111/18/1942Nazis Plunder Art, Moscow Declares-Captured (German) Officer Quoted13

11/18/1942Zionists Demand National Status-U.S. Senators Back Plea (Many Notables Among Them)1711/18/1942(Justice Department) To Naturalize 200 Outside Country (On The Basis Of An Administrative Order)2711/19/19421,000 (North African Refugees) Going To Palestine (With The Help Of The American Occupation Forces)31


1/19/1942Within Yugoslavia, I (‘House Divided Against Itself’)12

11/19/1942Columbia Rubber Is Offered To U.S. (3,000 Tons A Month)1411/19/1942(Harold Ickes) Opposes Inquiry Over Puerto Rico (And Behavior Of His New Deal Comrade, Rexford Tugwell)1511/19/1942Novelist (Walter D. Edmonds) Condemns Germans As Brutal (Not Just Nazis In Particular But Germans In General)2311/20/1942Spain Will Resist Coup By Either Side1

11/20/1942Nazis Defeated In Caucasus, 5,000 (Germans) Dead111/20/1942Plan To Oust Hitler Is Laid To Generals (London Report)311/20/1942‘Son Of L. S. Amery’ Heard On Nazi Radio6

11/20/1942Laval Is Denounced By Hull As Hitlerite911/20/1942Output Of Planes Ordered Doubled12

11/20/1942Army And Navy Set Up Typhus Commission-Admiral Stephenson Heads Study To Prevent Disease1611/20/1942Isolation Policy Is Seen As Ended18

11/20/1942War Stress Seen Changing Values2011/21/1942Laval Indicts U.S. On Africa, Pins Hope On Nazi Entente111/21/1942(Governor Herbert) Lehman To Direct Relief Of Peoples Freed From Axis (See Nov. 22, 1942 For Name Of Agency)1&611/21/1942(General Ritter Von) Thoma (Captured In North Africa) In England, Closely Guarded4

11/22/1942Lehman Forecasts Years Of Service In War-Torn Lands1&4711/22/1942Briton (Sir William Beveridge) Outlines Post-War Reform611/22/1942Cairo Dean Scores Jewish Army Plan1811/22/1942(U.S.) Educators Discuss Winning The Peace2111/22/1942Cemetery Steel Digs Grave For The Axis (Urns Salvaged By U.S. From Cemeteries)3011/22/1942Announced By White House (Lehman Named Director Of The Foreign Relief And Rehabilitation Operations-Frro-In The State Department)4711/22/1942Editorial (In Puerto Rico) Demands Impeaching Of Tugwell47

11/22/1942Count (Leopold Von) Berchtold Of Austria Is Dead (79)52 11/22/1942Laval Finds His Level; Now Talks Like HitlerE-3

11/22/1942We Have A Blitzmaker Too (Roosevelt)-By W. H. LawrenceMag. 1011/23/1942Russians Open Offensive At Stalingrad1

11/23/1942R. A. F. Bombs Reich In A Night Assault4

11/23/1942Don’t Underrate Foe (United States); Nomura Warns Japan5

11/23/1942Nazi Imputes Guilt Of Raids To Swiss-Says They ‘Tolerate’ R. A. F. Flights Over Them5

11/23/1942Editorial: Mr. Lehman’s New Post2211/24/1942(British) Commando (Capt. G. S. Courtney) Piloted (General Mark) Clark To Algiers6

11/24/1942Hebrew Papers Mourn-Black Borders Around Reports Of (Mass) Killings In Poland1011/24/1942First Lady (Eleanor Roosevelt) Hints Of Income Ceiling15

11/24/1942U.S. Aid To Europe In Education Seen (By G. D. Stoddard)21

 11/24/1942Gov. Lehman Ready For Federal Job (Director Of Foreign Relief And Rehabilitation Operations-Frro-In State Department)2711/24/1942Lehman Concerned By Plight Of Jews-Says Survival Will Hinge On Location In Palestine46

11/25/1942Jan Valtin (Richard Krebs, Communist) Taken For Deportation (Vita)1&1511/25/1942Chicago Trio Get Death Penalty For Treason, Wives Prison Terms1

11/25/1942Curtin (Australia) Sees An End To Pre-War Chaos-Return To Unemployment And Slums Is Barred411/25/1942Churchill ‘Gag’ On De Gaulle Seen6

11/25/1942Himmler Program Kills Polish Jews-Officials Of Poland Publish Data-Dr. (Stephen S.) Wise Gets Check Here By State Department (Gas Chambers Alleged)10

11/25/1942(Rabbi S.S.) Wise Gets (Sumner Wells) Confirmation (Jews Were Exterminated And Are Being Exterminated)10

11/25/1942Allies Act To Bar Ransom To Nazis (Trading With The Enemy Act Is Invoked)12

11/25/19429th ‘Night Of Stars’ Aids (United) Jewish (Appeal) Drive-Lehman Makes Appeal18

11/25/1942Roosevelt Plans Foreign Aid Talk (To Explain Function Of Foreign Relief And Rehabilitation Office-Frro-In U.S. State Department)25

11/26/1942The President Buys First New Victory Loan Bond (Apparently The Only One He Ever Bought-Probated In His Estate)111/26/1942Goebbels Bids Nazis Learn From Defeat111/26/1942(French) Workers For Reich Are Put At 200,0006

11/26/1942Slain Polish Jews Put At A Million (Rabbi) S(tephen) S. Wise Explains His Stand-Abbatoir For Deportees-Mass ElectrocutionsInjection Of Air Bubbles (Belzec, Poland)16

11/26/1942Lehman Arranges To Begin New Task (Director Of Foreign Relief And Rehabilitation Office-’Frro,’ U.S. State Department)37

11/27/1942De Gaulle Appeal To Roosevelt Seen111/27/19421,000 Jews Sent Out Of Norway By Nazis311/27/1942Liberated Allies Charge Brutality (Of Axis)411/27/1942Pledge Of U.S. Aid To Chile Revealed6

11/27/1942Kurusu Accuses Us Of Starting War (Hull Note Of Nov. 26, 1941 Was Fuse)1411/27/194212 Americans Held In German Prison-(Y. M. C. A.) Reports On Conditions15

11/27/1942U.S. Seen As Center Of Jewish Culture (By Dr. Mordecai Soltis) 21 Junior Hadassah Gets War Reports40

11/28/1942French Scuttle Fleet, Ruin Its Toulon Base1

11/28/1942Hitler Letter Tells Petain ‘Treachery’ Made Him Act111/28/1942Mexico Pays U.S. $2,500,000 (Of $40,000,000) On Claims (For Confiscated Oil Properties)1

11/28/1942Hitler’s Letter To Marshal Petain (Text)411/28/1942Poland In Appeal On Nazi Outrages-Underground Aids Jews-Says Germans’ Killings Total 1,400,000711/28/1942Palestine Called A Post-War Haven (By Dr. Nahum GoldmannHolds It Key To New Future For Jews Who Survive Nazi Domination)1111/28/1942Two Die In Riot Of Negro Soldiers28

11/29/1942300 Killed By Fire (Coco-Nut Grove, Boston)1

11/29/1942French Scuttlings Hailed In (Synagogue) Sermons-(Rabbi) Schachtel Scores Killing Of Jews1011/29/1942Democratic Rights Are Seen In Danger-Epstein Warns Of Extension Of Military Authority10
11/29/19427 Of Jehovah Sect Ordered Rehired (By Presidential Board)3211/29/1942Lehman (Director Of State Department’s Frro) Pleads For All Creeds3411/29/1942Slaughter (Of Jews) In Poland Condemned By (Matthew) Woll (Of The C. I. 0. Refers To ‘Systematic Extermination’ Of Jews)44

11/29/1942 Weizmann Warns Of Complacency-Right To Rebuild Palestine As Jewish Commonwealth Is Deemed Essential 46

11/29/1942 4,000,000 Women Now In War Jobs 46

11/29/1942 Japanese Troops Died In Holocaust-Our Fllers Slaughtered Them By Thousands In Sinking 8 Transports In Solomons 5

111/29/1942 Picture: U.S. Bombing Attack On Lille Steel & Locomotive Works 58

11/29/1942 Phi Beta Kappa Group (At Radcliffe) To Initiate First Lady (Eleanor Roosevelt)61

11/29/1942 World Peace Unit Is Vital, (Elmer) Davis Says-Hull’s Plan Is The Base64

11/29/1942 Thompson, Dorothy, Listen Hans, Houghton MifflinBook 3

11/30/1942Churchill Tells Italy To Oust Leaders Or Face Shattering Allied Blows (Text P. 5)1

11/30/1942New British Book (Front Line. 1940-1941) Tells (British Version Of) Blitz Story3

11/30/1942Palestine Growth After War Mapped (By National Labor Committee For Palestine)11